Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Oliver St John (1634-1688) 2nd Earl of Bolingbroke

English School

This portrait of Oliver, 2nd Earl of Bolingbroke, purchased by Swindon Corporation in 1965, will enjoy a makeover this year, thanks to the fund raising efforts of the Friends of Lydiard Park.

Oliver St John was born in 1634, a member of the senior, Bletsoe branch of the family, descended from the eldest son of Lady Margaret Beauchamp and her first husband Oliver St. John. Lady Margaret's second marriage to John Beaufort produced a daughter Margaret, the mother of the first Tudor King Henry VII.

Oliver's wife, Frances Cavendish was one of Royalist William Cavendish 1st Duke of Newcastle and Elizabeth Bassett's three daughters. With her sisters Jane and Elizabeth, Frances grew up at Welbeck Abbey, a former monastery in Nottinghamshire; a home the three women would courageously defend during the English Civil Wars. However, in marriage Frances aligned herself with the Parliamentarian St Johns when she wed Oliver at Pitstone, Buckinghamshire on November 24, 1654.

The couple's marriage settlement included a sum of £7,000 paid as portion and extensive lands in Bedfordshire to be held to the use of the Earl of Bolingbroke for life and afterwards to his new wife Frances for her life to be held in trust for 2,000 years. In default of any male issue, and in case there were daughters of the marriage, the trustees were to raise £60 per annum out of the property for their education and maintenance; if there was one daughter the sum of £7,000 was to be raised and paid at the age of 18 or on marriage and should there be more than one daughter the sum of £10,000 was to be raised and divided equally, payable at the same time. The trust of 2,000 years was to be declared void if there was any male issue of the marriage.

As it turned out Frances and Oliver St John had no children during their 24 years of marriage and on his death in 1688 Oliver’s titles and estate went to his brother Paulet.

The couple lived at Bletsoe Castle in Bedfordshire where Frances died on August 15, 1678. She was buried in the parish church at Bletsoe where Oliver erected this memorial. The tablet on the left side was left blank, presumably for a suitable inscription when Oliver died, but apparently no one ever got around to writing his epitaph.

Wednesday, September 18, 2013

To the Memory of Jonas Clarke

To the Memory of Jonas Clarke
Who died March 31st 1862 aged 74 years

In memory of Cordelia Ann daughter
of Francis and Jane Carey who died
Dec 8th 1861 Aged 16 Years
Also Jonas, their son died Jan 18th 1865 Aged 14 years.

The grave of Wick Farm tenant Jonas Clarke senior is just inside the gates to the churchyard at St Mary's, Lydiard Tregoze. Jonas was born in Minety in 1787 where he spent his early adult life. His marriage to Elizabeth Fitchew in 1816 proved to be unsuccesful and by 1818 he had entered into a relationship with Alice Pinnell. The couple had seven children but had to wait more than thirty years for the death of Elizabeth before they could marry.

Jonas's business like will makes no reference to bequests of a personal nature. He leaves his real estate to his only surviving son Jonas and to his wife Alice he leaves 'all my live and dead farming stock and crops of corn grain and hay household goods furniture and effects dairy utensils implements of husbandry monies and securities for money and all other my personal estate and effects whatsoever unto my Wife Alice Clark for her absolute use and benefit so long as she shall continue my widow'

A record of the old field names of Wick Farm appear on the Tithe records of 1841, including:-

Bakers Mead
Green Down
The Green Down Mead
New inclosure
The Clay Pit Ground
The Prinnels
High Croft
Lower Wick
Upper Wick
Part of Holdings
Fresh Brooks Mead

This roughly drawn map of West Swindon in the 1980s plots some of these parcels of land.

The farm remained in the tenancy of the Clarke family until the 1880s. You might like to read how local author Mark Child unraveled the confusing story of two younger Jonas Clarke's.

In 1930 cash strapped Lady Bolingbroke put several of her properties on the market in what was described as 'one of the largest sales held in Swindon for many years.'

Lot 28 of 57 was Jonas's former home.

An exceedingly dry rich grazing and dairy holding known as Wick Farm situate in the Parishes of Lydiard Tregoze and Lydiard Millicent, and having an acreage of 139a 1r 3p intersected by good roads. The Farm House is brick built, slated and tiled and the farm buildings are of similar construction. There are also two excellent modern cottages substantially built of brick, with slated roofs, each containing five rooms.

This farm has been in hand recently and, for the purposes of this sale, the rent is estimated at £332. Vacant possession can be given on completion.

Proportion of Tithe Annuity in Lydiard Tregoze, say £49 10s 0d.
proportion of Tithe Annuity in Lydiard Millicent, say £1 11s 0d
Land Tax to be apportioned

The Vendor retains the right to take water from the Spring at Brook Buildings for the Keeper's Cottage adjoining (which are not included in this sale). 
There are three telephone poles erected on this lot for which the PO Telegraphs pay 3/- per annum

There was no offer made on Wick Farm in the 1930's sale.

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Portrait of the week - Lady Johanna St John

Lady Johanna St John died at her Battersea home on January 15 1704/5 and was buried in the family vault at neighbouring St Mary's Church.

Much of Johanna's writings survive, including her 1680 Receipt Book now held by the Wellcome Library and the subject of a whole host of events at Lydiard House this year, including a fascinating series of lectures.

In 1995 the Friends of Lydiard Tregoz published a transcription of Lady Johanna's will. Lady Johanna wrote the will herself in 1703 and then added a scrawling codicil on the fourth side of the original document, writing in the margins and obscuring some of the text.

The will, even in transcription, is quite difficult to interpret, but my special interest is in the personal bequests made to family and friends. Raised in the Puritan branch of the Bletsoe family Johanna has a no nonsense reputation, so it is pleasing to read evidence of the caring side of her nature.

Johanna did her philanthropic duty as can be seen in the following investment.

'Alsoe I give an Hundred pound to be placed out at intrest or vested in a purchace as my said exeqtrs shall think fitt & that Alice James my old servant shall have the profitt & intrest therof dureing her life & after her Death I would have the profitt therof & intrest layd out yearely or as often as conveniently may be in the placeing out to Apprentice a poor Girl or Boy of Battersea aforesaid'

Susanna Foot, another trusted servant receives -

'..all my weareing Clothes Linnin & woolen new & old & all the whole Furniture in my Closit & Chamber except the Clock the Cabinet in my Closet & the smal Pictures & thos thing wch I have already disposed to .. alsoe I give her Foot the Plate I used in my Chamber as the Porenger & spoon the Basin I wash in & the Cupp I drink my Choclatte in & alsoe in my Closit I give her all in it & my silver skillet.'

By the time Lady Johanna died at the age of 75 she had outlived all but five of her 13 children.

To her incorrigible eldest son Henry St John, convicted of the murder of Sir William Escott in The Globe Tavern she leaves 'the Great Bible in my Closet with the Pictures of the 4 Evangilists'

To her daughters and daughter's in law she leaves the following:

'Alsoe I leave to my Daughter Chute all the little Pictures (wherof Sr Walter St Johns mother is one) wch hang over my Table in my Closet & two Guilt canns Sr Walter gave me Alsoe I give to my Daughter Frances wife to my Son William St John my Jubely Chair in the Guilt Leather Rome in my said House & all the Chiny things in the same Room except what belongs to the Thea Table in the same Roo & two of my silver salvers To my eldest son Henrys wife I give the rest of my silver salvers wch are 6 in number & my two silver candlesticks alsoe I give her...To my Daurgr Cholmondeley I give my great Receit Book & crosstich screen in my House in the Dining Rome ther..'

The grandchildren also receive bequests.

'Alsoe I give unto my God Daughter & Grand Daughter Johanna Cholmondeley & Daughter to my Daughter Cholmondeley one Hundred pounds...To my Grand Dtr Soame according to my promise I give my Booke of receits of cookery & Preserves according to ....To my Grand Dater St John Toppe I give my cabinet in my Closet but would have the papers therin burnt first...' and her Grandson Henry's wife also receives a keepsake.
'To my Grand Daughter wife to my Grandson Henry St John I give the oval silver Chamberpott & the two smal silver cupps with covers wch I had last of Mr North I give them to my Grand Daughter Mrs Frances St John.'

The Codicil written a year later reads:

I give my Pendelum clock in my Chamber to my Brother Frances St John of Long thorp in Northamptonshire I give to my Godson Frances Lee son to the Earl of Litchfeild 40 pounds in one yeare afer my Death to be payd him if alive or elce to come to my Grand son Henry St John when my personal Debts as for Clothes & such things as I pay for with the allowance of 150 pound a yeare Sr Walter give me if any mony be left I desire Susan Foot may have it given her as an addition to what I have given her before in this my will Sr Walter knows & so doe all concernd my Hand that I doe not live to write it out fair (as I intend) I hope it shall be no obiection to its being Authentick & my will as my Hand will shew it to be.

But perhaps the two references I find most moving are the ones she makes to her friend the Countess of Lindsey -

'To my old & Deare Friend the Countess of Lindsey I leave my Gold cupp wch Mrs Drax left me for a Legesey, And wish I could leave her a Friend may love her as much & have more power to serve her then my selfe'

and to her husband of 56 years, Walter St John, then aged 75.

'I desire if Sr Walter St John outlive me his old servants may be continued about him & that he may not be removed to Liddiard London or any other place from Battersea wher he has lived so long least it hasten his Death'

Tuesday, September 10, 2013

Windmill Leaze - an exceptionally attractive dairy and grazing farm

In Loving memory of
William Kinchin
Who died Dec 15th 1898 aged 74 years
Also of Catherine his beloved wife
who died Oct. 5th 1864
Aged 46 years

In Loving memory of
Matilda Elizabeth
the beloved wife of
Thomas Kinchin, who died June 24th 1906 aged 51 Years

William Kinchin was born and grew up at the Lydiard estate home farm, Windmill Leaze. He took over the tenancy from his father Thomas and after a lifetime at the farm in Hook he died there in 1898. William's son William J.P. Kinchin became the tenant following his father's death but in a little over ten years the Kinchin's long reign at Windmill Leaze was over. 

Lady Bolingbroke died in 1940 and two years later what remained of the estate went up for auction at the Corn Hall in Swindon's Cattle Market. The sale particulars of the remaining portion of the Lydiard Park Estate included the historic mansion, pleasure and parklands, Windmill Leaze Farm, Creeches Farm, Cottages and allotments and several holdings of arable and pasture land, the whole comprising approximately 750 acres.

Lot 1 was described as 'an exceptionally attractive dairy and grazing farm known as Windmill Leaze Farm situated in the parish of Lydiard Tregoze comprising 175.746 acres.'

The description continues:

The Farm House is substantially built of brick and stone, with tiled and slated roofs. Containing on the Ground Floor: Dining and Drawing Rooms, Kitchen (fitted with Triplex range) Dairy and usual Domestic offices. On the First Floor: 4 bedrooms and bathroom. On the second floor: 3 good attics.

The buildings are excellent, viz:- range of timber and brick built buildings with slate roof, forming tie up for 35 cows, with water laid on. Trap house cement block, asbestos roofed garage, with lean-to oil house in which there is fixed two 250 gall storage tanks, fitted with pumps. Timber built and thatched roof building, forming tie up for 14 cows and 3 calf standings. Cart horse stable for 6, with chaff house. Blacksmith Shop. Another range of buildings to tie up 8 cows and two calving boxes with large fore courts. 3 Dutch Barns (11 bays) 4 Bay lean to to Dutch Barn forming Implement shed. Barn, fitted with large Corn Bins and platform. Nag stable for 2. Two enclosed cattle sheds with large concreted yards. A further tie up for 11 cows. 2 calving boxes. Wood house.Large fitted dog kennel. Men's Mess Room. 7 bay implement shed. Goose and fowls' houses.

The tenants fixtures comprises: in house, Triplex grate, drawing room grate, grate with tiled hearth in bedroom, bathroom furnishings, together with the hot water system throughout the house, including Airing Cloak Room and soft water supply tank.

Buildings: The lean to G.I. erection to Barn, forming two loose boxes. Wood and engine houses. Garage and oil houses with the two storage tanks. Blacksmith Shop. 3 Dutch barns and lean to implement shed. The 2½ h.p. Lister Engine and pump to main water supply. The Drinking Bowls and piping to cow sheds. Three G.I. supply tanks to receive water from Cooler. Three large wooden corn bins and platform in barn. Summer house in garden. Footbridge across brook. Cement drinking place to the four acres. Cement bottom to front yard.

Two capital cottages being well built of stone with slate roofs, each containing Living room and kitchen, 2 bedrooms and box room, lean to Wash House, together with spacious and productive garden.
Being O.S. No. 279 Area .579 acre
Tenants fixtures: Two G.I. Store houses in garden

Let on a Ladyday Tenancy to Mr F.W. Rumming.
Apportioned Rent £264 Tenant paying rates

Tithe Annuity £59 10. 0. Land Tax £11.10.0

Pending completion of sale of timber, referred to in Condition 9, The Ministry of Supply have a defined way for removal of timber over this lot.

The farm is better known today as Park Farm and is still owned by the Rumming family.

This Victorian photograph of Windmill Leaze Farm is thought to include members of the Kinchin family - published courtesy of the Rumming family.

Friday, September 6, 2013

Portrait of the week - Sir John St John (c1585-1648) later 1st Baronet

painted 1603 English School

This portrait of dashing John St John, dressed in blue silk and wearing a pearl earring, would have caused the fluttering of a few young hearts no doubt, but John was already spoken for. He was about 17 years old when this was painted in 1603, the year before his marriage.

John was the second son of Sir John and his wife Lucy Hungerford. His father died in 1594 when John was about 8 years old. His mother quickly remarried but by 1598 she too was dead.

The guardianship of the young, wealthy boy, went first to a member of the senior branch of the family, another Sir John St John, 2nd Baron St John of Bletsoe and after his death in 1596 to the boy's uncle Oliver St John. However, another gentleman had his eye on the St John family fortunes.

Sir Thomas Leighton, Governor of Guernsey, was already close to the St John family and perhaps especially so after the tragic events of the summer of 1597. On that inauspicious day in August Sir Thomas had planned a day's hunting on the nearby island of Herm, one of the perks of being Governor of Guernsey. It had not been his intention to take the party of teenagers staying with him and at Castle Cornet, but they nagged him so much he eventually succumbed. The youngsters included Walter St John, our John's elder brother who was about 15 years old at the time. Whether Sir Thomas was young Walter's guardian remains unknown.

While Sir Thomas and his party enjoyed the hunt the boys worked at their lessons, after which the whole party sat down together  to dine.

After they had eaten, the boys asked if they could go bathing, a request that was at first denied by the Governor. But these youngsters didn't give in easily and eventually Sir Thomas gave his permission on the understanding that three older men in the party accompanied them and that they didn't go too far out to sea.

The impetuous young Walter leapt into the sea ahead of the rest of the party and immediately ran into difficulties. His tutor Isaac Daubeny dived in and shouted to Walter to climb on his back, which he did, causing them both to sink. Another man called John Andros, who had hurt his foot in a previous rescue attempt, plunged into the sea again, but became entangled in the weeds. He narrowly escaped disaster by grabbing hold of a submerged rock to which he clung. 

Two others attempted a rescue, but it was John Bowyer who found the drowned body of Walter standing upright, entangled in the weeds.

Sir Thomas later became the guardian of Walter's brother John. Perhaps he felt a responsibility to the young man who had lost his parents and brother in a few short years. Sir Thomas's wife Elizabeth Knollys was a cousin of the Queen to whom she made an application for the wardship of the young man, stating they had 'a mind to match him to their daughter.' But maybe even this is not as mercenary as it might at first appear.

Still a ward of court, John married Anne at St John's Church, Hackney, close to her London home, on July 9, 1604. He was 19 years old and she was just 13. It seems unlikely that the couple set up home together immediately as the first of their 13 children was born eight years later  in 1612.

The portrait of the young John St John was purchased in 1965 and now hangs in the dining room at Lydiard House.

Wednesday, September 4, 2013

William Dore - being of Sound and disposing mind and memory

to the Memory of
William Dore
who departed this Life
the 26th January 1815
Aged 65 Years

to the Memory of
Sarah Wife of William Dore
who departed this Life
the 30th of June 1803
Aged 49 Years

to the Memory of
Mary, Daughter of 
William and Sarah Dore
Who departed this Life
the 16th of April 1834
Aged 63 Years

to the Memory of
John, the son of William & Sarah Dore who departed this Life
the 21st of May 1844
Aged 56 Years

To the Memory of
Ann Daughter of William & Sarah Dore
Who departed this Life
the 1st of July 1851 
Aged 71 Years

to the Memory of Sarah, Daughter of William and
Sarah Dore
who departed this Life
June 19th 1858
Aged 81 Years

William Dore was the first in an auctioneering family dynasty that spanned nearly 100 years and three generations.

Christened at St Mary's Church, Lydiard Tregoze in 1749, the son of Peter and Jone Dore, William married local girl Sarah Hedges and produced a large family.

William fulfilled his parish responsibilities as tenant and rate payer, and clocked up an impressive 13 years service as churchwarden with Jacob Matthews of Toothill, retiring in 1812, possibly due to ill health or just general infirmity. A long time tenant of Lord Bolingbroke, William paid rates on Wick Farm and additional land called Prinnels, Blacklands and Greendown between 1806 and his death in 1815.

He wrote his will in the month before he died and what I find particularly interesting are the personal bequests William makes to his family. Beds and bedding continue to be an important and valuable item of household furnishing and are handed down to his daughters.

I would love to be able to identify the house in Shaw that William bought for his four unmarried daughters. I wonder if it survived the 1980s development?

In the Name of God Amen I William Dore of Lydiard Tregooze in the County of Wilts, Yeoman being of Sound and disposing mind and memory do this Fifth Day of December in the year of Our Lord One Thousand eight Hundred and fourteen Make and publish this to be my last Will and Testament in manner following (that is to say) I give unto my son Peter Dore my Silver Tankard To my Daughter Elizabeth Beames my Small Mahogany Dining Table To my son John my Yearling Cart Horse Colt and my old Chestnut Hackney but my will is that the latter shall not be sold or Disposed of but be kept by him so long as it shall live To my Daughter Ann my Mahogany Tea Table To my Daughter Sarah my best Bed bedstead Bedding and Furniture to my Daughter Mary the Bed bedstead Bedding and Furniture in the room wherein I usually sleep To my Daughter Joan the Bed Bolster and Pillows which my Daughters are now making and my next best bedstead and furniture I Give to my Son William All the Stock and Effects on the Farm wherein I have lately placed him called the Marsh Farm also all my Wearing Apparel of every sort and kind and the sum of Thirty Pounds which I sometime since lent him Also I Give and Devise to my four Daughters Sarah Ann Mary and Joan All that my Freehold Messuage or Tenement Garden and Premises with the Appurtenances situate and being at Shaw in the parish of Lydiard Millicent in the said County which I lately purchased of William Morse To hold to them in the nature of and as Joint Tenants during so long time as they shall remain Single and Unmarried it being my desire that as soon as either of them shall Marry her Interest therein shall immediately Cease But my will further is that in Case all my said Daughters shall Marry Then immediately on the marriage of the last of them I Give and Devise the same unto such of my said four Daughters as shall be then living To hold to them their Heirs and Assigns for ever as Tenants in Common and not as joint Tenants All the rest residue and remainder of my personal Estate and Effects whatsoever and of what kind so ever (after payment of my just Debts and my Funeral and Testamentary Expenses) I Give and Bequeath to my Son John and my Daughters Ann Sarah Mary and Joan to be divided between them and in equal parts and proportions To and for his her and Their own Use and Benefit And I do hereby Nominate and Appoint my said son John and my said Daughter Sarah joint Executor and Executrix of this my Will In Witness Whereof I have herewith set my hand and seal the day and year first above written

Witnesses HP Burt, Wm Farmer, Joseph Noad